Born 2 July 1936 at Shelly Beach and educated at Kaipara Harbour Primary in Helensville (1941-1948) and Seddon Memorial Technical College in Auckland (1949-1952). Took part in Compulsory Military Training (CMT) before joining the Regular Force in May 1959. Posted to 2nd Battalion, New Zealand Regiment and sent to Malaya on the SS Captain Cook in October 1959. Stationed at Taiping and conducted operations on a monthly rotation. Returned to New Zealand in 1961 when the battalion was replaced by 1RNZIR. Trained National Service personnel at Waiouru (1963-1966) and completed various star and promotional courses leading up to 1968. Served in Vietnam with V6 Company, May-December 1971.